Javier Solana (Madrid, 1942) brings the policy in the veins. And he has walked around the world. Prior to embody the diplomacy of the EU Council as High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy until a couple of years, was secretary general of NATO and, formerly, Minister of Culture, Education, Foreign Affairs Government spokesman in the governments of Felipe González. Currently chairs the Centre for Economics and Geopolitics of ESADE Business School, where he has his periscope to discuss the economic crisis, the euro and the PSOE, and shape their vision of a situation considered salvageable but with sacrifices.
Question. You look very active on Twitter, is symptomatic of the times or is that now you have time? Response. It is a symptom of being involved in social networks. As I have extensive information networks, I like sharing. But do not say that I get up at seven and when I like a tortilla.What I do is to convey and share things I see and live.
Q. For example, the current situation.You have written of the inability of institutions to protect us from financial uncertainty and has been very critical of the EU. Do you think he has mismanaged the crisis? R. I am very pro-European and is not to say negative things about this case, nothing more than essential. I do not want to contribute to pessimism. Yes, it is true that the crisis has been managed with rhythms that did not correspond with the severity of the problem. At the beginning, especially, there was insufficient awareness of what the crisis meant either an inability to manage it there fast enough.What we are seeing now. I think if, in the case of Greece, would have taken appropriate steps within a reasonable time would be in a different situation. So there's a responsibility, surely unintended but far-reaching consequences for the times that are being used are not adequate to address the seriousness of the crisis.
Q. Do you think that we will emerge from the crisis more integrated? R.We leave further strengthened, but considering that we are 7,000 million people and has been a transfer of power to other countries not coming back. No less dramatic than we are asking countries to solve the problems emerging in the developed world. That should make us think about the tremendous changes taking place and those who either are not aware or do not respond as we should.
Q. Every time the IMF has a greater role in resolving the European crisis.Is not that a failure of Europe? R. If the problems of the euro are becoming global, it is clear that the ultimate responsibility will be the IMF.Hopefully not never, but it must begin to think how he is able to have the resources to meet needs.
Q. Have politicians lost the battle to the markets? A. I do not want to put it in terms of battle, but I think not. It is a consequence of having given political responsibility. But no doubt that if there had been more coordinated and effective, as there were in the first two peaks of G-20, would be different. Then the G-20 has not been able to organize themselves and each country has gone its own way against the recession. If we have failed to organize the Europeans alone, imagine an organization that is more complex.
P. Silva said at a recent conference in Spain that you attended that throwing away the heritage of humanity and the EU. Does that EU output or breaks?Will you two speed Europe? Is it hopeless? R. Europe has different speeds. Those in the eurozone and those not, those who are in Schengen and non, United Kingdom and Denmark have one leg inside and one outside ... The Lisbon Treaty provides for closer cooperation, which allows a group of countries can go further if they wish, and a structured, for which you need to meet conditions for participation. That is, we must be willing and able. It was designed primarily for safety, but the euro is a structured form of cooperation because it is for countries that are willing and able. And if what you mean, I think that the criteria will change and be more strict.
Q. That is what I mean, the euro. And if you can break. R. does not have to break the euro, but what is clear is that the conditions for participation in the Stability Pact have been ignored by everyone, starting with Germany and France. The lesson to be learned. From the beginning he knew that the eurozone was not prepared to asymmetric shocks and would gradually changing governance. Everything is so precipitated the crisis there was no time. The Stability Pact will be much stricter. If you want it to work, there must be more rigorous application of the stability pacts. They try to make a strong euro in which they are all willing and able to comply. It is in the interest of everyone, especially those who want to move towards greater integration.
The Socialist Party must turn to reality and to respond to reality. And the reality of today is not yesterday's
Q. And the lesson learned, what do you see the new covenant? R. The agreement must find a balance between how much transfer of sovereignty made by countries that want to continue in the eurozone and the euro makes much effort to save the country they need help. I think that is what is now being negotiated, but there will certainly be no transfer of sovereignty and should scare us. If you want more unity, we must do more transfer of sovereignty. You can not seek redress problems in a joint and at the same time, not wanting to do this assignment. Clearly, one consequence is that there must be greater solidarity to solve the problems. But I doubt that there will be assignments and much more stringent obligations. And I think it will be good for everyone.
Q. What do you think the German-French axis? Are you staying Spain out of the new European architecture? A. I do not think, but Rajoy's new government will have to get the battery to the speed of light. Many of our problems are in Europe. In the pre-euro crisis in the nineties, the problems were here and some in Europe, now is the reverse. We can not solve if not resolved also in Europe.
Q. But if there are multiple speeds, what future awaits Spain? R.No doubt, it should be on the front, at the forefront.
Q. What challenges does Spain have to be an essential part of Europe?R. Spain has to grow differently. The political challenge is to find that you have sufficient national consensus that has not been achieved. One must look with great generosity of all because it is in the interest of all.We also have to return to take more initiative in Europe. Spain can not be limited to nothing more than an observer. For that you need to create a good network of contacts and friends. I knew Europe was not the jungle, there were no unresolved problems, though not 100%.
Q. Are you saying that in recent years we have had many friends we've neglected? R. Do not misunderstand me. I want to talk positive. What is true is that the arrival of the new European generation was too sudden. They came, in general, without any knowledge of what had gone into the construction of Europe and without the cohesive factor that had represented the desire for peace, perhaps because no one can imagine now that there may be no peace in Europe.Today we must also cement the new global reality. In globalization, think you can live alone is nonsense. Happened in Germany and in some way also happened to us.
Q. Do you mean Spanish or European generations in general? A. For me, in general.
Q. Do you think that Rajoy has room for us out of the crisis? A. There are collective experience to know that this is a must and there is no reason to doubt it.
Q. Should he have given priority to meet with EU leaders and has done well to look first to the bankers? R. has national and European obligations but is not yet Prime Minister. It has been a delicacy, perhaps excessive in my opinion, and decided not to extrapolate their capabilities and their partners appointed, which was difficult not to send messengers who are all over the place. I hope so.
Q. Do you expect ...? A. I do not know, I have reason to know, but I'm sure. Common sense says he should be sending emissaries.
P. "The weak, when they are sure they can not win, can hurt the strong."What is meant by this phrase? Who are the weaknesses? R. I think I said referring to North Korea, which it can not be abandoned and, in turn, does not solve the problem.
Q. Some people think that has been repeated for other references and argue that Zapatero should have resigned in May 2010, after a rumor that Spain would be operated and take adjustment measures, to make way for a government led by you. Does that arose at some point? Would it have been useful to avoid the thud of the 20-N? A. To my knowledge, not raised, and in any case, I would like nonsense. What I do have said is that this was a time for a vote of confidence. Political leadership should have given more drama to the situation because, in my opinion, the country was not aware or the severity of the crisis and the importance of Europe to help solve it, until that weekend in May.
Q. How do you rate Zapatero eight years? R. will come the time of valuation. Not now. But I said above, that is enough. I say this with love.
Q. It seems that Zapatero used his experience. R. honestly do not think that the generation I belong was called to participate in a country with a tendency to move to the newer ones. In addition, I ordered, just back from Brussels, the first line of security of this country. And I did it with great consensus of all. The economic crisis has closed, but there is a job and the way it was, to realize that safety is everyone's responsibility, not just the military.
Q. What have you done wrong by the PSOE in this campaign? R.Rubalcaba I think deserves recognition for the way democracy to assume responsibility in a very difficult time for the party and for the generosity with which it has. It should be recognized not only for their constituents, but for others. I think that one must respect a politician who was strip when conditions are adverse. But I think there is a lack exaggerated respect for people who are dedicated people.
Q. Will you play any role in the next congress of the PSOE? R. No. I am no longer ... I have passed to another stage. I am still a person obliged to the country with a political vocation. I like being active.Teaching, speaking, tweeting ... but no.
Q. Does the Socialist Party should turn left or center? R. A where you turn it to reality and to respond to reality. And the reality of today is not yesterday's. There is a poetry of [Jose Angel] Valente I use a lot and says: "The worst is reason to think that we have had it, the reason you win." That's what needs to be done, the rest is nonsense. This is my life, I have always tried to adjust to the realities. Science and I'm moving the landscape, have also helped create, you have to move. What is absurd is to stay anchored. You go left alone.
Q. Do you think that socialists have to be to shout "Viva Spain" so that they vote as suggested by Bono? R. To you vote, you have to do is cry less and argue more.
Q. What is a Catalan front of the PSOE? A. Of course.
Q. Do you think political quality is lost? What is lacking political capital, as Lula said? For example, the government of Felipe González was part of you now had a level not seen or do not notice. Why do you think that is?R. It was a very special situation, but some people have called technocrats as derogatory. I really liked what he said and how he said Lula. And share it.
The Socialist Party must turn to reality and to respond to reality. And the reality of today is not yesterday's
Q. One of his current concerns is the energy deeper. Have you given up on other political challenges? R. I've always been in power. Not just physical, but because the EU had to do a lot of papers on energy.
Q. What does the power rule? R. If there is a global problem than financial excellence, is one that has to do with the energy and climate change, but the economic crisis has made him lose priority. Being able to govern well is an essential part of global governance in its economic and human resources. Let there be peace and stability in the energy sector is central to the global economy. The energy in general, but the water has been a cause of many wars and disasters, and therefore, rule that it is key. Do not forget that the energy has a particular geographic distribution: consumers are not where they are the producers and they change with new technological breakthroughs. If you also add that we only have one planet and that there is no plan B because there is no planet B, it is increasingly urgent to work in a coordinated and comprehensive.
Q. Will it do something the Durban summit? R. For something will no doubt, but I would have liked to serve more. But it is a step forward. It was said that we would come out of this crisis by the green, but has become overshadowed by the crisis.
Q. And what color will, nuclear black or white? R. The Japanese tsunami took lives and property, but also a great deal of confidence in nuclear energy. That this happens in the world's most sophisticated country, which has more robots than emigrants, produces a distrust that will take a long time to heal. But if, while demand rises, we want a habitable planet, we need an energy mix. That means that something must have nuclear power. How much?, Do not know. If you want to make compatible with CO2 emissions, there will be no choice."